Machine learning: how do computers learn?

Machine learning. What is it?

Machine learning (MLE) is a branch of artificial intelligence that allows computers to learn from data and perform tasks without explicit programming. This technology has revolutionized industries ranging from medicine to autonomous cars. In this article, we'll look at how computers learn using machine learning.

1. Data-Driven Learning

The core principle of machine learning is learning from data. Instead of rigid logic and rules, machine learning programs analyse data and extract patterns from it. This data can be text, images, sound, numbers, etc.

2. Types of Machine Learning

  • Supervised learning: In this type of learning, a model is trained on pairs of input and output data. This means that the model learns to predict outcomes based on the available data. Examples include classification and regression problems.
  • Unsupervised learning: In this case, the model is trained on an unlabelled dataset. It looks for structures and patterns in data, such as clusters or patterns. Examples are clustering and dimensionality reduction.
  • Reinforcement Learning: In this type of learning, the agent interacts with the environment and makes decisions to achieve a certain goal. Depending on his actions, the agent receives a positive or negative reward, which helps him develop optimal strategies.

3. Machine learning algorithms and models

Various algorithms are used to train machine learning models.

Among the most famous are the following:

  • Linear Regression: Used to predict numerical values based on a linear relationship.
  • Random Forest: This ensemble algorithm is used for classification and regression problems and is based on decision trees.
  • Neural Networks: Inspired by the principles of how the brain works, neural networks are used to solve a variety of problems, including image processing, speech recognition, and others.

4. learning process

The learning process includes the following stages:

  • Data collection and preparation: First, it is necessary to collect and prepare data for training the model. This may include data cleaning, scaling, and splitting into training and testing sets.
  • Selection of model: Selecting an appropriate model depends on the nature of the problem and the data. May require experimentation with different algorithms and hyperparameters.
  • Model training: The model is trained on the training set, and its parameters are adjusted to minimize the error on the training data.
  • Model evaluation: After training, the model is evaluated on a test set to determine its effectiveness and generality.
  • Tuning and Refinement: Depending on the evaluation results, the model may require refinement and customization.

5. Practical application of machine learning

Machine learning has applications in a variety of areas, including:

  • Medicine: analysis of medical images, diagnosis of diseases and prediction of their development.
  • Finance: financial market forecasting, fraud detection and portfolio management.
  • Transportation: autonomous vehicles, route optimization and road infrastructure management.
  • Internet of Things: more efficient management and optimization of smart devices.


Machine learning is a powerful tool for analysing data and making informed decisions. Understanding the learning process and various algorithms allows you to create effective models that can solve a variety of problems in various fields. Machine learning is constantly evolving and remains an important area of research and development.


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